Chapter 21 The Birth of Stars and the Discovery of Planets outside the Solar System

The Carina Nebula. This image shows two cone-shaped nebulae within the larger Carina Nebula. At the very top, or apex, of each gaseous “cone” are thin jets of material flowing into space at right angles from the cones.
Figure 21.1 Where Stars Are Born. We see a close-up of part of the Carina Nebula taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. This image reveals jets powered by newly forming stars embedded in a great cloud of gas and dust. Parts of the clouds are glowing from the energy of very young stars recently formed within them. (credit: modification of work by NASA, ESA, and M. Livio and the Hubble 20th Anniversary Team (STScI))

Chapter Outline

21.1 Star Formation
21.2 The H–R Diagram and the Study of Stellar Evolution
21.3 Evidence That Planets Form around Other Stars
21.4 Planets beyond the Solar System: Search and Discovery
21.5 Exoplanets Everywhere: What We Are Learning
21.6 New Perspectives on Planet Formation

There are countless suns and countless earths all rotating round their suns in exactly the same way as the planets of our system. We see only the suns because they are the largest bodies and are luminous, but their planets remain invisible to us because they are smaller and non-luminous. . . . The unnumbered worlds in the universe are all similar in form and rank and subject to the same forces and the same laws.
>—Giordano Bruno in On the Infinite Universe and Worlds (1584)

Bruno was tried for heresy by the Roman Inquisition and burned at the stake in 1600.

We’ve discussed stars as nuclear furnaces that convert light elements into heavier ones. A star’s nuclear evolution begins when hydrogen is fused into helium, but that can only occur when the core temperature exceeds 10 to 12 million K. Since stars form from cold interstellar material, we must understand how they collapse and eventually reach this “ignition temperature” to explain the birth of stars. Star formation is a continuous process, from the birth of our Galaxy right up to today. We estimate that every year in our Galaxy, on average, three solar masses of interstellar matter are converted into stars. This may sound like a small amount of mass for an object as large as a galaxy, but only three new stars (out of billions in the Galaxy) are formed each year.

Do planets orbit other stars or is ours the only planetary system? In the past few decades, new technology has enabled us to answer that question by revealing nearly 4300 exoplanets in over 3200 planetary systems. Even before planets were detected, astronomers had predicted that planetary systems were likely to be byproducts of the star-formation process. In this chapter, we look at how interstellar matter is transformed into stars and planets.

This book was adapted from the following: Fraknoi, A., Morrison, D., & Wolff, S. C. (2016). Thinking Ahead In Astronomy. OpenStax. under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0
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PPSC AST 1120: Stellar Astronomy by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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